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تتطرق هذه المحاضرة إلى المسرح اليوناني القديم، وترجع إلى أصوله البعيدة والتي تركت بصمات خالدة في الادب العالمي عموما والغربي الحديث خصوصا، ولا يزال يشكل هذا الجنس الأدبي مرجع ابداع لمختلف الأعمال الفكرية والفنية. وتعرض هذه المحاضرة لشكلين رئيسيين هما الكوميديا والتراجيديا تعريفا وتحليلا، إضافة إلى تقديم اهم الكتاب الذين برزوا هذا الفن المسرحي القديم، وتكشف أعمالهم الجليلة والقيمة

Social impact of capitalism

The establishment of capitalism was a time of upheaval and bitter struggles between new and old power-brokers. At the same time, the mass of the population were dragged unwillingly into an increasingly violent conditioning process. The new capitalists needed to be able to exert ever more pressure on their producers to produce more for less, so that the capitalists could maintain trading prices and increase profits. They looked to the state to ensure pressure was brought to bear on workers who, for the first time, were being forced to sell their labour in an increasingly competitive work environment, which was itself aggravated by the swollen ranks of the new landless and unemployed. Laws were passed setting a rate for the maximum wage payable to peasants. The aim of all this brutal legislation was to turn the dispossessed into a disciplined obedient class of wage workers who, for a pittance, would offer up their labour to the new capitalism. The state also clamped down on beggars, whose ranks were swollen by dispossessed peasants and ruined craftsmen. Able- bodied vagabonds were lashed or branded with red-hot irons, while persistent vagrants were liable to execution.

The problem of creating a disciplined and regimented workforce should not be underestimated. Viewed from our advanced modern industrial perspective, submitting to the routine of going to work daily, for a set number of hours, usually inside a building, appears the norm. From the perspective of 16th and 17th Century peasants, however, this routine would have been alien. The working day under a pre-capitalist agrarian system would have been shaped by hours of light and hours of darkness, as most work took place out of doors. The intensity and length of labour was dictated by seasonal considerations, such as planting or harvest periods. Similarly, holiday periods, even those marked by the Church, were seasonally derived and often based on ancient pagan festivals. The number and extent of these holidays helped define and shape the working year; up until the Reformation during the 16th Century, it is estimated that around 165 days a year, excluding Sundays, were given over to celebrations and festivals. .

ABOUT TTU MODULE

The aim of this MODULE is to acquaint you with the basics of research methods used in research processes. It also aims at encouraging you to learn the concepts, steps and procedures for carrying out your research project or any other research study.

TTU module expects you to do a lot of reading in order to cover the its content. It implies that you should devote much time to  some lectures by gettingmore information from numerous texts (abound in the internet).

However, You will need tovwork with other students in order to discuss, and to exchange ideas and share knowledge

self assessment exercises

Within each lecture are self assessment exercises are aimed at helping you check your. Ensure that you attempt each of the exercises before finding out the expected answer.

This lecture is a continuation of research process(describedinearlier lectures). It discusses the steps in the research process, tells you how to select the research problem, the sources of these problems and the criteria for selecting the problems. In addition, characteristics of a good  research are discussed.

                    Identification of Research Problems     In research process, the first and foremost step happens to be that of selecting and properly defining a research problem/ research is a process consisting of the identifying and defining research problem,

What is a Research Problem?

A research problem is a specific issue, difficulty, contradiction, or gap in knowledge about an area of concern that you will aim to address in your researchNote that the problem is stated in question form. Also note that the problem states a relation between variables.(Variable is used as the name of a phenomenon, or a construct, that takes a set of different numerical values)

Professional researchers could easily identify a research problem because they have been quite familiar with the phenomena in which a problem generally presents itself. The phenomena which include (1) a difficulty or deficiency to be overcome; (2) a condition to be improved upon; (3) a gap in knowledge that exists in scholarly literature that is to be filled; (4) a theory that requires meaningful understanding;

Type of research problems

There are two types of research problem You might look for

a)practical problems aimed at contributing to change /has practical relevance,

example; School  A B has a high drop out rate, affecting.

b)theoretical problems aimed a:t expanding knowledge. Theoretical problems they are not focused on solving an immediate issue in a specific place

example:The relationship between gender and learning outcomes

example:the role of the British Empire in the development of Scotland's national identity.

The type of research problem you choose depends on your broad topic of interest and the type of research you want to do.

How to identify a research problem?

1.Identify the broad ResearchStudy AreaFor example- if you do graduation in sociology,linguistics, you must decide your research study area in sociology or linguistics

EXAMPLE

ELT research field is divided into many research areas. Each research area is divided further into many topics, and each topic could is divided into some research problems. List of Common ELT Research AreasEnglish Teaching Methods 2. English Pedagogical Techniques 3. English Curriculum Development 4. Program, Syllabus, And Materials Design 5. English Language Planning And Policy 6. English as a Second or Foreign Language Teaching and Learning/Literature in ELT . ELT Research Methodology  Applied Linguistics/Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, or Pragmatics in ELT

 2.Preliminary review of literature

3. Narrowing down of general area./Choosing a specific topicResearch Topic

As mentioned earlier, after having research interests, it will be easier for you to determine the topic or "the broad subject matter addressed in a study for instance, might have decided "Translation in ELT” as one of  your research area. Based on this, selected "the use mother tongue in foreign language learning” the topic of his study.

 In the same way, one might have decided "Psychology, Anthropology, and Sociology in ELT” as  area of interest. Then  selected "students' beliefs about language learning, learning styles, and language learning strategies” as  research topic.

4.State it as a clear research problemA research problem, as mentioned previously, is the issue being addressed in a study. A research problem helps in narrowing the topic down

Writing the Problem Statement

example The issue of using mother tongue (MT) in foreign language (FL) classrooms

Sources of Research Problem :Research problem may be instigated by:

 i    Personal Experience

ii. scholarly literature  where problems lie in abundance

  iii Consultation with Subject Experts with the more experienced faculty members is a desirable practicev.

ivTheoretical Sources Theories are ideas formulated as a result of observed phenomena.

Characteristics of a good  research problem

1.The problem can be stated clearly and concisely.  

2. The problem generates research questions.

 3. It is grounded in theory.

4. It relates to one or more academic fields of study

يهدف هذا المقرر إلى تتبع مسار الحركة النقدية وما أفرزته المدارس النقدية  المعاصرة،ومنها نظرية القراءة التي حولت نزعتالسلطة من النص ومنحتها   إلى سلطة القارئ 

تقديم المادة                                              الأهداف                             

- تعد  التطبيقية الجانب العملي للسانيات؛ هي علم                         - الهدف هو معرفة مصادر و مجالات اللسانيات

بيني انفتح على الكثير من العلوم الانسانية و التجريبية                              التطبيقية والاحاطة بأهم فروعها وإدراك نظريات

يهدف إلى حل المشكلات اللغوية في التي يواجهها المجتمع                         التعلم، كما يجب تحسيس الطالب معرفيا بأهمية هذا

هذا المقياس يمكن الطالب من معرفة دور البحث اللغوي في                        المقياس في الجانب الاجتماعي والمهني لما يحويه  الكثير مجالات المجتمع(التعليم- النشاط الاجتماعي-الثقافة.                                  من روافد مهمة لتمكين طالب اليوم، إطار الغد

الترجمة- الذكاء الاصطناعي..الخ )                                                     من التواصل الفعال وظيفيا واجتماعيا. 

تنظيم المادة                                               المراجع                                                  

يقدم مقياس اللسانيات التطبيقية بأسلوب وظيفي يزاوج                        -  صالح بلعيد، دروس في اللسانيات التطبيقية.

بين النظرية والتطبيق ،نعرض فيه المعرفة والمنهج والمهارات               - صالح ناصر الشويرخ، قضايا معاصرة في اللسانيات التطبيقية.

التي تتعلق بالجانب العملي  للسانيات وحل المشاكل اللغوية  :                 -اللغة تدريسا واكتسابا : محمود السيد

في المجتمع (الاكتساب اللغوي -نظريات التعلم-علم الاجتماع                   - صالح بلعيد، اللغة العربية العلمية.

اللغوي-التخطيط اللغوي.)                                                                 - المهارات اللغوية وعروبة اللسان:فخر الدين قباوة

                                                                - ميشال زكريا، الألسنية وتعليم اللغات

                                                                                                 -اللسانيات واللغة العربية. د/عبد القادر الفاسي الفهري

البرنامج :

1

اختيار موضوع البحث (تدريبات حول صياغة عنوان البحث)

2

إشكالية موضوع البحث (عناصر الإشكالية والكلمات المفاتيح)..تمارين

3

رسم خطة البحث (عناصر المقدمة، الفصل و/أو الباب والفصول، الفقرة،..الخاتمة غايتها وشروطها )...تمرينات

4

التوثيق (الوحدات البيبليوغرافية ) ..متبوعة بتمارين حول توثيق المراجع

5

أنواع المراجع (المؤلفات، الكتب المترجمة، المجلات، الرسائل والأطروحات، الموسوعات والمعاجم، مواقع الشبكية...)

6

جمع المادة وتوثيقها وتبويبها (تدريبات)

7

التأليف .. أسلوب كتابة البحوث العلمية ..(التقميش والتعليق والنقد والتحليل والاستنتاج) تمارين

8

التأليف (حصة ثانية)

9

التهميش (مفهوم الهامش ووظيفته)

10

إخراج البحث (فضاء الصفحة، الحواشي والهامش) (الكتابة من اليمين إلى اليسار، ومن اليسار إلى اليمين ) (حجم الخط، كتابة أسماء الأعلام والمصطلحات....) (عدد الكلمات في السطر وعدد السطور في الصفحة....)

11

إخراج البحث (تدريبات على تقنيات الكتابة)

12

صفحة العنوان (شكلها ومضمونها )..تدريبات

13

الفهارس (فهرس الموضوعات، الأعلام، المصطلحات، الملاحق)